# How Many Kw Is Required For A House?

Determining the electrical needs for your house in kilowatts (kW) is an important part of ensuring your home’s electrical system can safely meet your family’s needs. With the right kW capacity, you’ll have enough power to run appliances, electronics, lighting, HVAC systems, and more without overloading the system or blowing fuses. Understanding your home’s electrical requirements can also help prevent the need for expensive upgrades down the line as your power needs change.

In this guide, we’ll walk through the key factors to consider when calculating your home’s kilowatt needs. We’ll look at average and peak demand, evaluate your current electrical service, explore upgrade options if needed, and discuss alternative solutions. We’ll also cover some important safety considerations when dealing with home electrical systems. Let’s get started.

## Calculate Total kW Demand

kW or kilowatt refers to the rate of power consumption. The kW demand of a house is the total power needed to run all electrical devices and appliances at the same time.

To calculate the total kW demand:

• Multiply the square footage of your house by 0.043 to estimate the kW demand for lighting. For example, a 2,000 square foot house would need about 86 kW for lighting (2,000 x 0.043 = 86 kW).
• Add up the wattage of all major appliances and divide by 1,000 to determine the kW demand. For example, a refrigerator (200 watts), stove (5,000 watts), clothes dryer (3,500 watts) and HVAC system (4,000 watts) totals 12,700 watts, or 12.7 kW.
• Factor in the size of your heating and cooling system based on the home’s climate. In a very hot or cold climate, allot 3-5 kW for the first stage A/C or heating system, plus 2 kW for each additional stage.

Add up the estimates for lighting, appliances and HVAC to determine your total kW demand. Compare this to your current electrical service to see if an upgrade is needed.

## Average kW Demand

The average kW demand for a house depends on several factors like square footage, number of occupants, and types of appliances used. As a general guideline:

• A small 1,000 sq ft house with just the basics like lighting, a refrigerator, and a gas stove may only need 5-10kW.
• A 2,000 sq ft house with central AC, electric appliances, and 3-4 occupants will likely need 15-20kW.
• Larger luxury homes over 3,000 sq ft with premium appliances may demand 30kW or more.

All-electric homes tend to have a 50-100% higher demand than homes using natural gas for heating, hot water, stoves, and dryers. For example, an electric stove may require 5-10kW compared to less than 1kW for a gas stove.

Region also plays a role. Homes in hot climates with central AC have a higher summer peak, while cold climate homes with electric heat have a higher winter peak. The average kW is based on the full year’s usage across seasons.

## Peak Demand

Peak demand refers to the maximum electrical power drawn from the utility grid over a given period, usually measured in kilowatts (kW). Understanding and managing your home’s peak demand is important for several reasons:

Peak demand typically occurs in the evenings on weekdays when family members are home from work and school and running many appliances at once. Things that contribute to peak demand include heating and cooling systems, hot water heaters, stoves, clothes washers and dryers, televisions and computers, and lighting. Summer peaks may be higher with increased air conditioner use.

You can reduce peak demand through simple steps like running appliances at off-peak times, turning off unnecessary lights, setting your thermostat a couple degrees higher in summer, and installing insulation, energy efficient windows, and appliances. More advanced solutions include home energy storage and demand response programs with your utility.

Lowering your home’s peak demand not only saves money on your electricity bills, it also reduces strain on the grid during critical high-usage periods. This benefits everyone by improving grid reliability and potentially minimizing the need for new power plants and infrastructure.

## Other Considerations

Several factors should be evaluated when determining the kW requirements for a home.

Newer versus Older Homes: Newer homes tend to be more energy efficient and require less electricity overall. They often have better insulation, energy efficient appliances and lighting, high efficiency HVAC systems, and smart home technology to reduce energy usage.

Older homes generally require more power since they lack some of these energy efficient features. Older lighting, appliances, HVAC systems and poor insulation result in higher electricity demands.

Energy Efficient Appliances: Using ENERGY STAR certified appliances can significantly reduce electricity usage. Energy efficient washers, dryers, refrigerators, dishwashers and other appliances consume less power.

Solar Panels: Adding solar panels to your home will reduce the amount of electricity drawn from the grid. Any excess solar energy can also be sold back to the utility provider.

Electric Vehicles: Charging an electric vehicle will increase electricity demand. A Level 2 EV charger requires about 7 kW. Planning ahead for an electric vehicle is important when determining electrical service needs.

## Evaluating Your Current Electrical Service

Before deciding on upgrading your home’s electrical service, it’s important to evaluate your current setup. Here are some signs that your home may be in need of an electrical service upgrade:

Frequent tripping of circuit breakers or blown fuses – If you find yourself constantly resetting breakers or replacing fuses, it likely means you’re exceeding the capacity of your current electrical panel.

Dimming lights when appliances turn on – Momentary dimming or flickering of lights when a large appliance kicks in is an indicator your system can’t handle the temporary surge in power demand.

Old or insufficient wiring – If your home’s wiring is still using 60 amp service, knob and tube wiring, or aluminum wiring, an upgrade is recommended for safety.

Not enough circuits or outlets – Having too few circuits for your needs can overload the wiring and cause nuisance tripping. Insufficient outlets can require the unsafe use of extension cords.

Upgrading major appliances – Installing larger appliances like central AC, an electric oven, or EV charger may require increased electrical capacity.

To check your current electrical panel size, open the main breaker panel and look for the amperage rating printed on the inside of the panel, or on the main breaker itself. This will tell you the total capacity of your current service.

It’s best to contact a licensed electrician if you notice any of the signs above indicating your home’s electrical service may be inadequate or unsafe. They can assess your current system and advise if an upgrade is recommended.

Upgrading your home’s electrical service typically involves replacing the electrical panel and service wires that connect your home to the utility. This allows for increased electrical capacity to meet your home’s needs.

The upgrade process usually involves the following main steps:

• An electrician will evaluate your current electrical service and loads. They’ll recommend the appropriate amperage for the upgraded service based on your home’s electricity requirements.
• The electrician will submit paperwork to the utility company to request a service upgrade. The utility will then replace the service wires from the street to your home.
• The electrician will install a new, larger capacity electrical panel to replace your existing one. Your home’s circuits will be reconnected in the new panel.
• The utility company will then connect the home to the new service wires and activate the upgraded electrical service.
• The electrician will verify proper functioning of the upgraded system.

Costs for an electrical service upgrade often range from \$1,500 to \$5,000 or more, varying based on factors like:

• Required amperage increase
• Service panel location and access
• Necessary rewiring or conduit installation
• Permit fees

The project typically takes 1-3 days to complete, though timeframes can vary. Scheduling well in advance is recommended when planning an upgrade, as the utility company may need 1-2 months for their portion of the work.

## Alternative Solutions

There are a few alternative solutions if your home’s electricity demand exceeds the capacity of your current electrical service. These allow you to manage high power loads without needing to upgrade the service.

### Generators

Portable gasoline or diesel generators can provide supplemental power for high demand appliances like air conditioners, hot tubs, or electric vehicle chargers. These can be expensive to purchase and maintain, noisy to operate, and require ventilation. But for occasional peak loads, they offer an alternative to service upgrades.

Staggering the use of large appliances and devices can help reduce coincident demand. Running the clothes dryer, oven, dishwasher, etc. at different times can help prevent overload trips. Smart plugs and timers can help automate load scheduling.

### Energy Storage Systems

Battery storage systems can store electricity during off-peak hours and discharge it during peak demand. These systems can reduce stress on electrical infrastructure and avoid service upgrades. The upfront cost is still high, but prices are falling as technology improves.

## Safety Issues

When upgrading home electrical service, it’s important to consider any potential safety issues that may arise. Overloaded circuits, old wiring, and lack of proper certifications can all lead to dangerous situations if not addressed properly.

Overloaded Circuits: Adding more high-powered appliances and electronics can overload circuits that are rated for lower amperages. This can lead to circuit breakers tripping repeatedly, hot spots in wiring, and potential electrical fires. Having an evaluation by a licensed electrician can identify any circuits that may need to be upgraded or split into multiple circuits.

Old Wiring: Outdated wiring that has degraded over time may not be able to safely handle increased electrical loads. Aluminum wiring in particular can present fire risks if not maintained and connected properly. Replacing old wiring can greatly improve electrical safety.

Certifications: Any major electrical work like service upgrades should be done by licensed electricians according to local and national electrical codes. Improper installations can jeopardize safety. Licensed professionals can pull the proper permits, have work inspected, and provide certified documentation that the service meets requirements.

## Conclusion

To determine the proper size of electrical service for a house, the main factors to consider are total kW demand, average kW usage, and peak power requirements. By calculating the kW rating for major appliances, lighting, heating/cooling systems, and other electrical loads, you can estimate the total demand. It’s also important to plan for future demand increases and account for safety factors. Upgrading an undersized electrical panel and service wires/conduit should be done by a licensed electrician to avoid hazards.

Properly sizing your home’s electrical service is crucial for safety, avoiding power outages, and allowing for future expansion. With an accurate estimate of your home’s demands, you can work with professionals to right-size your electrical infrastructure. The next step is to evaluate your current electrical service size, age, and condition. An electrician can then advise if upgrades are warranted. Taking the time to correctly size electrical service ensures your home’s power needs will be met safely and efficiently.