Which Country Uses Wind Turbines?

Which country uses wind turbines?

Wind turbines are large towers with blades that use wind to generate electricity. Wind turbines are located in windy areas across the globe and are an increasingly popular source of renewable energy. According to the Global Wind Energy Council, the world’s installed wind power capacity reached 743 gigawatts in 2020.

This article provides an overview of which countries around the world utilize wind turbines the most and have the largest wind power capacity. We will examine the top 5 wind energy producers globally, looking at important statistics and details on the role wind power plays in each country’s energy mix. Understanding the growth and adoption of wind turbines worldwide provides helpful insight into the future of renewable energy.

Wind Turbine Basics

Wind turbines are devices that convert kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power. They have a horizontal axis rotor with two or three blades that spin when wind blows over them. The rotor is connected to a generator through a shaft, which converts the mechanical power into electricity (Wikimedia Commons, n.d.).

The main components of a wind turbine include the blades, rotor, nacelle, tower, and foundation. The blades capture the wind energy and transmit it to the rotor. The nacelle sits atop the tower and contains the gearbox, generator, controller, and brake. The tower supports the nacelle and rotor. And the foundation anchors the wind turbine into the ground (Energy Education, n.d.).

Wind turbines work on the principle of converting kinetic energy of wind into mechanical power. As wind blows over the blades, lift is created much like with an airplane wing. This starts the blades spinning and transfers power through the rotor and shaft to turn an electromagnet in the generator. The magnet spins within wire coils to produce alternating current electricity (Energy Education, n.d.).

Countries are adopting wind turbines as renewable sources of energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, cut air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and boost domestic energy security. Wind power is an inexhaustible resource and turbines can be built onshore or offshore. Improvements in turbine technology have made wind power more efficient and cost-effective (Energy Education, n.d.).

Top Wind Energy Producers

When it comes to installed wind energy capacity, the top countries in the world are:

  • China – With over 336 GW of installed capacity, China has the highest wind energy capacity in the world, representing over a third of the global total.
  • United States – The US has over 122 GW of installed wind capacity, the second highest in the world. Wind power accounts for over 8% of total US electricity generation.
  • Germany – Germany has over 61 GW of installed wind capacity. Wind power contributes around 17% of Germany’s total electricity production.
  • India – India has over 39 GW of installed wind capacity and continues to rapidly expand wind farms, especially in coastal regions.
  • Spain – With over 27 GW of wind capacity, wind power provides about 20% of Spain’s annual electricity needs.

Other major producers include the UK, France, Brazil, Canada, Sweden and Italy, each with over 10 GW of installed wind capacity.


China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of wind energy. In 2020, China had over 285 GW of installed wind power capacity, accounting for over one-third of the world’s total wind power installations (1). The country has seen rapid growth in wind energy adoption over the past decade, with capacity more than doubling since 2015. Major factors driving China’s wind energy expansion include government policies aimed at reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, abundant wind resources, and declines in turbine costs (2).

China is home to some of the largest wind farms in the world, including the Gansu Wind Farm in Gansu Province which has over 7,000 turbines and 5.7 GW of capacity. Other major wind power bases include Inner Mongolia, Hebei, and Xinjiang. Moving forward, China aims to have over 400 GW of grid-connected wind power capacity by 2030 as part of its goal to source 20% of total energy consumption from non-fossil fuel sources (3). The country’s abundant wind resources, large power demand, and support for renewable energy is expected to enable further growth in wind generation.

(1) https://www.coursehero.com/file/p79737c6/What-sectors-or-industries-does-FDI-invested-into-China-go-into-high-tech-real/

(2) https://www.coursehero.com/file/p79737c6/What-sectors-or-industries-does-FDI-invested-into-China-go-into-high-tech-real/

(3) https://www.coursehero.com/file/p79737c6/What-sectors-or-industries-does-FDI-invested-into-China-go-into-high-tech-real/

United States

The United States is a leading producer of wind energy, with over 120 gigawatts of installed wind capacity as of 2021. Texas leads the nation in wind capacity, followed by Iowa, Oklahoma, California and Kansas. The US has seen rapid growth in wind energy in recent years, with total capacity increasing from 25 GW in 2009 to over 120 GW in 2021. Some of the largest wind farms in the US include:

Wind energy accounted for over 8% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2020. The Department of Energy has set a goal to reach 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% by 2050. Key factors driving growth in wind power include state renewable energy standards, federal production tax credits, and improving wind turbine technology and performance.

Germany’s Significant Wind Energy Growth

Germany is a global leader in wind energy use and capacity. According to Clean Energy Wire, as of February 2023, Germany had over 28,000 wind turbines installed with a total capacity of 58 gigawatts (GW) (German onshore wind power – output, business and perspectives). The country aims to expand wind capacity to 115 GW by 2030.

Some of the largest wind farms in Germany include Reussenkoge Wind Farm, which was the biggest with 166 turbines and 595 megawatts (MW) capacity as of June 2023 (Germany: onshore wind farm ranking by capacity 2023). Other major wind farms are Lower Saxony’s Bornum Wind Farm (135 MW), Brandenburg’s Wusterhusen Wind Farm (148 MW), and Schleswig-Holstein’s Enge-Sande Wind Farm (112 MW).

While Germany has rapidly grown its wind energy over the past two decades, it has also faced some challenges. There have been permitting issues for new onshore wind projects, local opposition in some areas, grid capacity constraints, and turbine failures. However, the German government remains committed to continued wind expansion to meet its renewable energy targets.


India has rapidly increased its wind power capacity in recent years. As of March 2022, India had installed wind power capacity of 40.1 GW, the fourth largest in the world. Wind power accounts for nearly 10% of India’s total installed power capacity. India added 2.4 GW of new wind power capacity in 2021-22.

The states with the largest installed wind power capacity include Tamil Nadu (14 GW), Gujarat (8.7 GW), Maharashtra (5.4 GW), and Rajasthan (4.8 GW). The Indian government has set a target of achieving 140 GW of wind power capacity by 2030 as part of its commitment to increase renewable energy.

Some of the largest wind farms in India include:

  • The 1,600 MW Jaisalmer Wind Park in Rajasthan, developed by Suzlon Energy. It is spread across multiple sites and comprises India’s largest wind farm.
  • The 1,500 MW wind farm in Kutch, Gujarat, made up of multiple phases and sites.
  • The 1000 MW project in Dhalgaon, Maharashtra developed by Siemens Gamesa.
  • The 725.15 MW Samana wind farm in Gujarat.

The government has implemented policies such as accelerated depreciation, generation-based incentives, and renewable purchase obligations to promote wind energy growth. Key challenges for the wind industry include land acquisition, transmission infrastructure, forecasting and scheduling, and tariff issues.


Spain is one of the leading countries in wind energy generation and capacity. As of 2019, Spain had over 27,000 wind turbines across more than 1,100 wind farms, with total installed capacity of 23,484 MW (IEA Wind – Spain). This accounts for 23.3% of Spain’s total electricity generation (Wikipedia – Wind power in Spain).

Some of Spain’s largest wind farms include the Villonaco Wind Farm (230 MW), Peralta Wind Farm (220 MW), and El Sauz Wind Farm (120 MW) (Wikipedia). The country added 2,245 MW of new wind capacity in 2020 alone.

Spain has set ambitious targets for renewable energy adoption. The country aims for 42% of its energy to come from renewables by 2030. Wind power will play a major role in achieving this goal. Government policies like premium tariff schemes and auctions for new renewable capacity have helped spur wind energy growth (IEA Wind). Major Spanish energy companies like Iberdrola, Acciona and Enel are leading investors in new wind projects.

Other Notable Countries

The United Kingdom has become a leader in offshore wind power, with over 10 gigawatts of capacity. The UK plans to quadruple offshore wind capacity to 40 gigawatts by 2030 according to this article. Brazil has also emerged as a major wind energy producer, ranking 6th globally with over 21 gigawatts of installed capacity. In just 10 years, Brazil increased capacity from 1 gigawatt in 2011 to 21.5 gigawatts. More details can be found in this report. Other countries like France, Sweden, and Italy have between 10-15 gigawatts of wind power capacity each. Overall, wind power continues to expand globally, with many countries investing heavily in wind farms and turbines to utilize this renewable energy source.


Wind energy has grown dramatically over the past two decades, with dozens of countries making significant investments and harnessing the power of wind for electricity generation. The top wind producers are China, the United States, Germany, and India, but many other countries have also developed substantial wind capacities. Key factors that enable wind energy growth include favorable government policies, declining costs, and technological advances in turbine size and efficiency. Looking ahead, the future of wind power appears bright, with projections for continued expansion globally. With concerns about climate change and energy security, nations are likely to further embrace this clean, renewable energy source. However, realizing the full potential will require overcoming challenges around transmission infrastructure, grid integration, policy uncertainty, and public opposition in some areas. Overall, wind energy is poised to comprise an increasing share of electricity generation worldwide.

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