How Renewable Energy Solve Problems?

How renewable energy solve problems?

Renewable energy comes from natural sources that are constantly replenished, such as sunlight, wind, water, plants, and geothermal heat. Some forms of renewable energy include solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomass. Using renewable energy is extremely important as we work to transition away from fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas, which are nonrenewable and release greenhouse gases responsible for climate change when burned.

Renewable energy can provide solutions to many of the world’s most pressing problems. Some of the main benefits of transitioning to renewable energy sources are mitigating climate change and reducing air pollution by decreasing our reliance on fossil fuels. Renewable energy can also increase energy access to underserved communities, improve national and energy security, reduce water usage, create jobs, and provide public health benefits.

This article will explore how renewable energy can help solve major global challenges like climate change, pollution, energy poverty, and more.

Climate change

Renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal produce little to no greenhouse gas emissions, which are the primary driver of climate change. According to the UN, renewable energy could reduce emissions in the power sector by up to 90% by 2050 if adopted at scale, massively cutting overall emissions.[1] By displacing fossil fuels, renewable energy reduces dependence on coal, oil and natural gas, the main sources of carbon emissions. The MIT Climate Portal explains how renewable energy plays a central role in climate change mitigation by enabling a transition to a clean energy system.[2] Public opinion also strongly favors renewable energy as a climate solution, with 90% of Democrats prioritizing renewables over fossil fuels according to Pew Research.[3] Overall, scaling up renewable power is one of the most effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change.

Air pollution

Renewable energy such as wind and solar power can significantly reduce air pollution by avoiding emissions from burning fossil fuels. According to a report by Clarity, switching to renewable energy reduces fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from power plants, transportation, and industry [1]. PM2.5 is linked to health problems like asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease. The UN also states that renewable energy could reduce air pollution in the power sector by 90% by 2050 if fully adopted [2]. Overall, by avoiding combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas, renewable energy virtually eliminates emissions of not just greenhouse gases but also particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, mercury, and other dangerous pollutants.

Energy access

Renewable energy can provide electricity to remote and rural areas that lack access to traditional grid infrastructure. Over 770 million people worldwide still lack access to electricity, with the majority living in sub-Saharan Africa and developing parts of Asia. Providing universal access to affordable and reliable electricity by 2030 is one of the key goals outlined in the UN’s Sustainable Development agenda.

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), massive growth in renewable power generation is opening the door to achieving this goal. The IEA reports that renewable electricity capacity grew at its fastest rate in over 30 years in 2022 – increasing by over 13% from the previous year. This was driven by significant expansion of solar and wind power in developing regions like Africa and Asia (IEA).

Decentralized renewable systems like solar microgrids and small wind turbines can provide electricity to rural villages and households beyond the reach of centralized grids powered by fossil fuels or large hydroelectric dams. Standalone home solar systems are also becoming more affordable – providing basic electricity for lighting, appliances and device charging. The UN reports that since 2015, over 150 million people have gained access to electricity through decentralized renewable based solutions (UNSDG).

Expanding renewable energy is key for achieving universal electricity access and enabling social and economic development in remote and impoverished areas. The GEF estimates that 1.3 billion people could gain electricity access through decentralized renewables by 2030 (GEF).

Energy security

Renewable energy improves energy security and independence by relying on domestic energy resources that are not subject to global price shocks or supply disruptions. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, “The United States can achieve energy independence and security by using renewable power” ( Increasing renewable energy production from solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydropower sources can reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. This diversification of energy supply enhances resilience and protects countries from volatility in global oil and gas markets. As renewables generate more electricity domestically, they boost national energy security. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory concludes that “Renewable energy can support energy security by adding diversity to an overall electricity generation portfolio. Diversity of a power generation portfolio can enable greater resilience and limit vulnerability to supply disruptions and market shocks” (

Water usage

Some renewable energy sources like wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) use significantly less water than fossil fuel power plants. Thermal power plants, like those burning coal, oil, and natural gas, require water for cooling and condensing steam. According to a 2004 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), solar PV and wind consume less than 1 gallon per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity produced, while coal plants consume 500-600 gallons per MWh. Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production. This means switching to wind and solar PV can greatly reduce water demand for the power sector.

Hydropower plants do consume more water since they rely on water to generate electricity, but the water is not “used up” and returns to the watershed. Bioenergy crops like corn ethanol can have higher water intensity depending on feedstock and technology used. Overall, transitioning to renewable energy, especially wind and solar PV, provides an opportunity to greatly reduce the water intensity of power generation.

Job creation

The renewable energy industry has become a major source of employment and economic growth around the world. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), there were 13.7 million jobs in renewable energy in 2022, up from 12.7 million in 2021. Close to two-thirds of all jobs are in Asia, where China alone accounts for over 4 million jobs.1

In the United States, clean energy jobs grew 3.9% in 2022, adding 114,000 jobs and increasing to over 40% of total energy jobs according to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). There are now over 8 million jobs in renewable energy in the U.S. DOE analysis shows that between 2021-2022, energy jobs grew faster than overall U.S. employment.2,3 The renewable energy industry offers diverse employment opportunities in manufacturing, construction, operations, and more.

Public health

Transitioning to renewable energy sources like solar, wind, geothermal, and hydropower can significantly improve public health by reducing harmful air pollution from fossil fuels. Burning coal, oil, and natural gas releases particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and other toxins into the atmosphere. This leads to a range of health problems like asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, neurological damage, and premature death (Department of Energy). One Harvard study found the health benefits of replacing fossil fuel electricity with renewable energy are worth $5.2–$210 million annually for each state (Harvard School of Public Health). Reducing reliance on fossil fuels improves respiratory health, especially for vulnerable populations like children and the elderly. Renewable energy generation emits little to no air pollution, helping prevent a wide range of pollution-related illnesses.


Renewable energy provides sustainable energy for current and future generations by harnessing naturally replenishing resources like sunlight, wind, water, plants, and geothermal heat. Unlike fossil fuels, which draw on finite resources that take millions of years to form, renewables are unlimited and will not run out as long as the sun shines, wind blows, and rivers flow.

By shifting to renewable sources, we can meet today’s energy needs while preserving resources for the future. Wind turbines and solar panels can produce carbon-free electricity indefinitely, as long as their components are replaced as needed. The fuel itself – wind, sunshine, flowing water – is free. This provides energy security for generations to come.

Renewables are also more sustainable than fossil fuels because they emit little to no greenhouse gases. Widespread adoption of renewable electricity helps combat climate change and reduce air pollution. This protects the environment so people can thrive for generations.

Lastly, renewables create sustainable jobs that cannot be outsourced. Growing the renewable energy industry provides employment opportunities in manufacturing, installation, and maintenance. And because renewables are distributed, jobs are created in local communities rather than concentrated in fossil fuel hubs.


In conclusion, renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal and biomass offer solutions to many of the world’s most pressing problems. By transitioning from fossil fuels to renewables, we can mitigate climate change and reduce air pollution, providing cleaner air and public health benefits. Renewables also increase access to energy for remote and developing regions, boost energy security by relying on domestic resources, and use less water than fossil fuels. The transition creates jobs in the clean energy sector, contributing to local economies. Ultimately, renewable energy provides a sustainable path forward, allowing us to meet our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. The environmental, economic and social advantages make it imperative that we accelerate the global transition to renewable energy.

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