# How Is Heat Physics?

Heat and temperature are related but distinct concepts in physics. Heat refers to the total kinetic energy of molecules while temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules.

Heat is a form of energy transfer between objects or systems due to a temperature difference. It flows from higher temperature to lower temperature objects. Heat is measured in joules (J) in the International System of Units (SI).

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance. It reflects how hot or cold an object is. Temperature is measured on a scale like Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin. Unlike heat, temperature does not involve energy transfer and is an intrinsic property of a system.

While related, heat and temperature are not the same thing. An object may gain heat without changing temperature if it has a high heat capacity. Or an object at high temperature may not transfer much heat if its mass is low. Understanding the distinction between heat and temperature is fundamental to the study of thermodynamics.

## Heat Transfer

There are three main ways heat transfers between objects or regions: conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction is the transfer of heat between objects that are in direct contact with each other. It occurs when faster moving molecules collide with slower moving molecules, transferring kinetic energy. Metals are good conductors because their free electrons can quickly transfer kinetic energy. Insulators like wood or plastic have far fewer free electrons, inhibiting heat transfer.

Convection is heat transfer via the motion of fluids. It occurs between a surface and a liquid or gas moving over that surface. As the fluid moves, it carries thermal energy along with it from hotter to cooler areas. This creates a circular flow, with warmer fluid rising and cooler fluid sinking. Convection enables cooking and heating. It also drives sea breezes and global air circulation patterns.

Radiation is the emission of electromagnetic waves from an object due to its internal thermal motion. All objects constantly emit thermal radiation corresponding to their temperature. This radiation propagates outward until absorbed by another object, transferring heat. Radiation does not require direct contact or a transporting medium. It’s how the Sun’s thermal energy reaches Earth and how infrared imaging devices can remotely detect temperature differences.

## Measuring Temperature

Temperature is a measurement of how hot or cold an object is. To measure temperature, we use thermometers. Thermometers work by using a temperature-sensitive property of a material that changes in a predictable way as the temperature changes.

Some common types of thermometers include:

• Mercury thermometers – These contain liquid mercury in a glass tube. As the temperature increases, the mercury expands and rises in the tube.
• Alcohol thermometers – These work similarly to mercury thermometers but use alcohol instead of mercury.
• Infrared thermometers – These measure the infrared energy emitted by an object. They can measure temperature without contact.
• Thermocouples – These contain two dissimilar metals joined at one end. They produce a small voltage dependent on the temperature.

There are several temperature scales used to measure temperature with thermometers:

• Celsius – Also known as centigrade. Water freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C.
• Fahrenheit – Water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F.
• Kelvin – The SI unit of temperature. 0 K represents absolute zero. Water freezes at 273 K.

Each scale has its uses. Celsius and Fahrenheit are convenient for everyday applications, while Kelvin is used in science.

## Thermal Expansion

When matter is heated, it tends to expand, occupying a larger volume. The degree of expansion depends on the substance and its phase (solid, liquid, or gas). This phenomenon is known as thermal expansion.

Heating induces higher molecular activity, causing greater average distances between atoms or molecules. The atoms and molecules move faster and further apart as they gain thermal energy.

Solids generally expand linearly along the direction they are heated. For instance, heating a metal rod will make it lengthen slightly in the axial direction. The expansion is proportional to the temperature change.

Liquids also expand volumetrically, but less than gases since their molecules are closer together. The density of liquids thus decreases with heating.

Gases exhibit the greatest expansion under heating because their particles are spread far apart. Their volume increases substantially as temperature rises. The ideal gas law mathematically relates the volume, temperature, and pressure of gases.

Thermal expansion affects engineering and construction, where allowances must be made for expansion and contraction of materials. It also has everyday implications, like why lids become easier to remove from jars after heating. Overall, the expansion of matter with temperature is a key thermal physics concept.

## Heat Capacity

Heat capacity is a measure of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by one degree. It depends on the amount of substance, the nature of the material, and the temperature. Heat capacity is directly proportional to the amount of substance – doubling the amount of substance doubles its heat capacity.

On a microscopic scale, heat capacity arises because increasing the temperature increases the kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. More energetic molecules move faster and vibrate more. Increasing the temperature therefore requires adding kinetic energy, which is essentially heat. Materials with stronger molecular bonds or more complex structures require more energy to speed up their molecules, and thus have higher heat capacities.

Heat capacity is an important concept in many applications of physics. It allows us to determine how much heat is needed to change an object’s temperature. High heat capacity materials can absorb significant heat with little temperature change, useful for heat sinks. Low heat capacity allows rapid heating and cooling, important in cooking. Understanding heat capacity helps engineers design systems to harness thermal energy. Ultimately, heat capacity depends on the atomic structure of materials and links the macroscopic world of temperature to the microscopic world of molecular motion.

## Phase Changes

Phase changes are transitions between different states of matter. Some of the key phase changes are melting, boiling, condensation, freezing, and sublimation.

Melting is the transition from a solid to a liquid state. When a solid is heated, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases. At the melting point temperature, the molecules have enough energy to break out of the rigid crystalline structure and move freely as a liquid. The melting point is the temperature at which this occurs.

Boiling is the transition from a liquid to a gas. As a liquid is heated, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases. At the boiling point, the molecules have enough energy to completely break free of each other and escape as a gas. The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external atmospheric pressure.

Condensation is the reverse of boiling, the transition from a gas to a liquid state. It occurs when a gas is cooled enough that the kinetic energy of its molecules drops low enough for intermolecular attractive forces to pull the molecules together into a liquid state.

## Calorimetry

Calorimetry is the science of measuring heat transfer in chemical reactions and physical changes. This technique allows scientists to determine the heat absorbed or released during these processes. Some key principles of calorimetry include:

– The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another. This means the heat lost by one substance must equal the heat gained by another.

– Many chemical reactions and phase changes are exothermic, meaning they release heat. Endothermic processes absorb heat.

– A calorimeter is a device used to measure heat transfer. It consists of an insulated container filled with a substance. The amount of heat absorbed or released can be quantified by monitoring the temperature change of the substance.

– Calorimeters allow the measurement of a system’s heat capacity – the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1 degree. Substances with higher heat capacities require more energy to change their temperature.

– The heat change (q) of a reaction can be calculated using the equation: q = mcΔT. Here, m is the mass of the substance, c is the specific heat capacity, and ΔT is the temperature change.

– Some common uses of calorimetry include determining the energy content of foods, studying metabolism, calculating heats of reaction, and investigating thermodynamics.

By precisely measuring heat transfer during chemical and physical processes, calorimetry provides valuable insights into the energetics and properties of matter.

## Heat Engines

Heat engines convert heat into mechanical work by exploiting temperature differences. They operate on a thermodynamic cycle that manipulates a working fluid, such as water, air, or hydrogen. There are two main types of heat engines:

External combustion engines burn an external fuel to heat the working fluid in a boiler or furnace. The fluid expands and pushes a piston to perform work. Examples include early steam engines and modern power plants.

Internal combustion engines burn fuel inside the engine itself to heat the working fluid. The expanding gases from combustion directly push the piston. Examples include gasoline and diesel engines in cars and trucks.

In both types, the high temperature allows the working fluid to expand against the piston, while the lower temperature allows compression to start the cycle again. This conversion of heat to work follows the laws of thermodynamics. The efficiency of real heat engines is limited, so waste heat is always produced. Understanding the thermodynamics of heat engines leads to improvements in efficiency and reducing waste.

## Entropy

Entropy is a measure of molecular disorder or randomness in a thermodynamic system. As the entropy of a system increases, the amount of energy available to perform useful work decreases. Entropy tends to increase in spontaneous processes as energy spreads out and becomes more disordered. Entropy is related to the number of microstates a system can occupy. The higher the number of microstates, the higher the entropy. This is because there are more ways for the molecules and energy to be arranged randomly.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy can never decrease over time in an isolated system. Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, increasing entropy. Irreversible processes like friction and chemical reactions also increase entropy. Living systems are able to decrease their entropy temporarily by taking in energy from their surroundings, but ultimately entropy increases. In the universe as a whole, entropy is always increasing.

Entropy is an important concept that puts a limit on the efficiency of heat engines and refrigerators. It also gives a physical direction to the flow of time, explaining why most processes are irreversible. Entropy provides deep insight into the nature of energy dissipation and disorder at the molecular level.

## Applications of Heat Physics

Heat physics has many practical applications in industry, technology, and everyday life:

### Industry

Heat is used extensively in industrial processes like smelting, welding, annealing, and tempering metals. Many chemical reactions rely on heating reactants to high temperatures. Heat exchangers are used to recover waste heat and improve efficiency in power plants, oil refineries, and other large-scale operations.

### Technology

All engines, from combustion engines in cars to turbines in jet aircraft, utilize heat and temperature differentials to generate power. Electronic devices like computers and cell phones rely on the flow of electricity, which generates heat that must be dissipated. Thermodynamics principles guide the design of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems.

### Everyday Life

Humans use heat daily for cooking, heating buildings, powering appliances, and more. Insulating materials in clothing, houses, and packaging help regulate heat transfer. Many technologies like incandescent lights, stoves, grills, and heaters intentionally generate high temperatures for practical use.