# How Is Electricity Converted Into Light?

Electricity and light are fundamental forces of nature that permeate our daily lives. Though they may seem familiar, the underlying science behind how electricity becomes light is fascinating and complex. In this article, we will briefly introduce some basics about electricity and light, then dive into an exploration of how exactly electricity is converted into the various forms of illumination we use every day.

Electricity refers to the flow of electrons, tiny particles with a negative charge. This flow of electrons is what powers technology, appliances, and lighting. Light, meanwhile, is a type of electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye. Different wavelengths and frequencies of light result in all the colors we see. When electricity is put through certain materials, it causes them to emit photons or particles of light.

In the following sections, we will examine several methods of converting electricity into visible light, from simple incandescent bulbs to more complex solid-state lighting like LEDs and lasers. Along the way, we’ll gain insight into the principles of physics and engineering that enable us to harness electricity to brighten up our lives.

## Electricity Basics

Electricity is the movement of charged particles, usually electrons, through a conductive material such as a metal wire. Electrical current is the rate of flow of these charged particles and is measured in amperes. Voltage, measured in volts, is the electrical “pressure” that causes the current flow. The higher the voltage, the higher the flow of current if the resistance in the circuit stays the same.

Power, measured in watts, is the rate at which electricity is produced or consumed. Power is equal to current multiplied by voltage (P=IV). Electrical power moves through wires and other conductors and can be put to use as light, heat, motion, and more.

Electrical circuits provide a closed conducting loop through which current can flow. Generators produce voltage that pushes current through the circuits. Resistors limit the flow of current. Understanding these basic concepts allows us to harness electrical power for human uses.

## Light Basics

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that humans can see. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays. The only difference between these types of radiation is their wavelength and frequency.

Visible light is the narrow range of electromagnetic radiation that human eyes can detect. The wavelength of visible light ranges from about 380 to 750 nanometers. Beyond these wavelengths are infrared (longer) and ultraviolet (shorter).

Light can be described in terms of particles called photons. Photons carry packets of energy that correspond to the frequency of the radiation. Higher frequency radiation like X-rays has photons with higher energy than lower frequency radiation like radio waves.

The color of visible light depends on its wavelength. Violet light has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum, while red light has the longest wavelength. White light contains all wavelengths of visible light. Objects appear colored because they absorb some wavelengths and reflect others.

## Incandescent Bulbs

Incandescent bulbs were the original design invented by Thomas Edison. These bulbs consist of a glass enclosure with a wire filament inside that heats up when electricity passes through it. The filament gets extremely hot, around 2500-4000 degrees Fahrenheit. At these high temperatures, the filament gets hot enough to glow and emit light. This effect is known as incandescence, which is where the name of the bulb comes from.

The thin wire filament acts as a resistor to the electrical current flowing through the bulb. As the current passes through the resistive filament, it heats up the wire due to resistance heating based on Joule’s first law. The temperature gets so high that the filament starts glowing, acting like a blackbody radiator. Most of the radiation emitted falls within the visible light spectrum, allowing the filament to produce visible light.

So in summary, incandescent bulbs use the electrical resistance of a hot wire filament to generate high temperatures that cause the filament to glow and emit light through thermal radiation. This simple but ingenious design by Edison enabled the first commercially viable electric lights.

## Fluorescent Lights

Fluorescent lights operate differently than traditional incandescent bulbs. Rather than heating a tungsten filament to produce light, fluorescent lights use mercury vapor and phosphor to create illumination.

Inside every fluorescent bulb is a small amount of mercury vapor. Electricity is applied to the vapor, which excites the mercury atoms. When this occurs, ultraviolet light is emitted as the atoms relax to their stable state. The ultraviolet light is invisible to our eyes and must be converted into visible light.

To convert the ultraviolet light, the inside of a fluorescent bulb is coated with phosphors. As the ultraviolet light strikes the phosphors, the phosphors absorb the energy and re-emit it as visible light. Different blends of phosphors can create various colored lights.

The combination of mercury vapor and phosphors creates the familiar glow of fluorescent lighting. This method is more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs, resulting in lower electricity usage. However, fluorescent bulbs do contain a small amount of mercury, which creates environmental concerns regarding their disposal.

## LED Lights

LED lights use a semiconductor material called a diode to emit light. When current flows through the diode, electrons interact with electron holes releasing energy in the form of photons or light particles. The color of the light depends on the semiconductor material used.

LEDs or light emitting diodes are made from materials that allow the flow of electrons across a junction between positively charged (p-type) and negatively charged (n-type) semiconductor layers. As electrons move from the n-type layer to the p-type layer, they fill holes in the p-type layer and release energy in the form of photons.

The semiconductor materials used determine the wavelength and color of the photon or light emitted. For example, gallium arsenide phosphide diodes emit red light, indium gallium nitride diodes emit blue light, and some formulations of silicon carbide and gallium nitride emit blue, green, and white light.

By combining LEDs of different colors like red, green and blue, any color light can be produced including white light. LED lights are energy efficient and long lasting compared to incandescent and fluorescent lights.

## Lasers

Lasers are devices that generate intense beams of coherent light through a process called stimulated emission. In this process, photons interact with excited electrons in the laser’s gain medium, causing the excited electrons to drop to a lower energy level and emit photons of the same frequency, phase and direction as the incoming photons. This generates a cascade effect that amplifies the light.

The gain medium of a laser contains atoms that have been excited to higher energy levels, usually by an external energy source like a flash lamp or electrical discharge. The excited atoms contain electrons in high energy states. When a photon interacts with an excited electron, it stimulates the electron to drop to a lower energy state and emit a second photon identical to the incoming photon. The two photons can then stimulate other excited electrons to emit identical photons, resulting in an avalanche effect producing a sudden burst of coherent light.

Mirrors are placed at each end of the laser’s cavity to cause the photons to reflect back and forth repeatedly through the gain medium, allowing them to stimulate the emission of more identical photons during each pass. One of the mirrors is only partially reflective to allow some photons to escape as the laser beam. The avalanche process results in light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, which is the acronym “laser”.

## Discharge Lamps

Discharge lamps produce light by sending an electrical discharge through ionized gas. Inside the lamp is a glass tube that contains gas, usually neon, argon, xenon, sodium, or mercury vapor. When a high voltage is applied, it ionizes the gas atoms, causing the electrons to jump to higher energy levels. As the electrons return to their original energy levels, they release photons in the form of visible light.

The color of the light depends on the type of gas used in the lamp. For example, neon emits a reddish-orange glow, while sodium vapor lamps give off a yellowish light. The glass tube is specially designed to withstand the heat and pressure generated by the arc inside. Discharge lamps require ballasts to regulate the current flow and igniters to initiate the arc. Some common types of discharge lamps include fluorescent, metal halide, sodium vapor, and neon lamps. Their efficiency in converting electrical energy into light makes them ideal for many lighting applications.

## Quantum Physics

At the smallest scale of atoms and electrons, light is emitted or absorbed in the form of discrete quanta or photons. When electrons within atoms transition between different energy levels, photons are emitted. The energy of the photon matches the difference in energy between the two electron energy levels. For example in an LED, electrons in the semiconductor material recombine with electron holes and emit photons. The color or wavelength of the emitted photon depends on the energy gap between the electron energy levels. Similarly, photons can be absorbed by atoms to excite electrons to higher energy levels. The fundamentals of quantum physics underlie how matter and light interact at the atomic scale.

## Conclusion

In summary, there are several main methods of converting electricity into light that were discussed. Incandescent bulbs operate by heating a tungsten filament with electric current, causing it to glow white-hot and emit light. The hotter the filament, the brighter the light produced. Fluorescent lights contain mercury vapor that emits ultraviolet light when excited by electricity, and the UV light is converted into visible light by the fluorescent coating inside the bulb. LEDs are semiconductors that emit light when an electric current passes through them, and different materials produce different colored light. Lasers amplify light via stimulated emission, producing a coherent beam of light that is very intense and focused. Finally, discharge lamps like neon signs convert electrical energy into light by exciting gas atoms, which then emit photons as they return to lower energy states.

In summary, all these methods involve using electricity to excite atoms and cause them to release photons of light. But they utilize different materials and processes to achieve this goal. The key takeaway is that light is inherently linked to the electromagnetic field and the emission of photons from electrons transitioning between energy levels. Harnessing electricity allows us to stimulate and control this process in order to produce artificial light.