What Is The Most Safe And Cheap Source Of Energy?

Energy plays a vital role in nearly every aspect of our lives. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the United States consumed about 98 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy in 2021 alone. With global energy demand continuing to rise, finding affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy sources is crucial.

Fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal currently account for about 80% of total global energy use (https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=41433). However, burning fossil fuels contributes significantly to climate change by releasing greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. There is an urgent need to transition to cleaner energy sources that are also cost-effective and safe.

This article evaluates different energy sources based on cost, safety, and sustainability to determine the most affordable and safe options available today. Understanding the pros and cons of various energy technologies can help guide smart energy policies and consumer choices.

Fossil Fuels

The main fossil fuel sources used for energy generation are coal, oil, and natural gas. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock that is mined and used to generate electricity and provide heat. Oil is a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon that is refined into gasoline, diesel, and other fuels for transportation, heating, and electricity generation. Natural gas is a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly methane, that is used to generate electricity, heat buildings, and power appliances.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, about 60% of electricity generation in the U.S. comes from fossil fuels like coal, natural gas, and petroleum (1). Fossil fuel power plants burn these fuels to heat water, produce steam, and spin turbines to generate electricity. Though renewable energy is growing, fossil fuels still play a major role in energy generation worldwide. In 2017, fossil fuels generated 64.5% of global electricity (2). The continued burning of coal, oil, and gas for energy is a major contributor to climate change and air pollution.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called nuclear fission. Uranium is a non-renewable energy source that must be mined from the ground. In a nuclear reactor, uranium rods are immersed in water. The uranium undergoes fission when bombarded with neutrons, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of heat as well as more neutrons to carry on the fission chain reaction. The heat from the fission reaction is used to boil water into steam, which spins a turbine to generate electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 10% of the world’s electricity.

According to the World Nuclear Association, nuclear power is one of the lowest-cost options for generating electricity in areas with established nuclear infrastructure. However, building new nuclear power plants is expensive, with high upfront capital costs. Once built, fuel costs are relatively low compared to fossil fuel plants.

The NRDC argues that nuclear power remains expensive due to continued health and safety risks that add to costs throughout the long operational lifetime of a plant. The process of mining, enriching, and fabricating uranium fuel is labor intensive and time consuming. Safely managing radioactive waste also adds substantial financial costs over the full nuclear fuel cycle.

Renewable Energy Overview

Renewable energy comes from natural sources that are constantly replenished. There are several major types of renewable energy sources that are in use or being developed today:

Solar energy harnesses the power of the sun using solar photovoltaic panels or concentrated solar thermal plants to convert sunlight into electricity. Solar power is clean, renewable, and abundant, and the costs of solar panels have dropped dramatically over the last decade. However, solar energy only works when the sun is shining.[1]

Wind energy captures the wind with large wind turbines, mostly on wind farms, and converts wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical power or electricity. Wind power is clean, renewable, and widely available across the globe. However, optimal wind farm sites are often located far from cities requiring transmission lines.[1]

Hydropower generates electricity by using flowing or falling water, usually captured by dams on rivers. Hydropower is a mature technology that provides clean, renewable electricity around the world. However, building large dams can impact local ecosystems.[2]

Geothermal energy taps heat from under the earth’s surface for heating or to generate clean electricity from steam. While geothermal potential is site-specific, it provides constant base load power. Enhanced geothermal systems have significantly expanded potential capacity.[2]

Biomass energy uses organic plant or animal waste as a fuel, such as wood, manure, or crop residues. While biomass is renewable, some forms such as wood burning can release particulates. Advanced biofuels are being developed as cleaner alternatives.[1]

[1] https://www.nationalgrid.com/stories/energy-explained/what-are-different-types-renewable-energy
[2] https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/what-is-renewable-energy

Evaluating Cost

When comparing energy sources, one of the most important factors to consider is the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). This metric calculates the average cost per unit of electricity generated over the lifetime of a power plant. According to Lazard, in 2022 the LCOE for solar photovoltaic plants ranged from $26-44 per MWh, onshore wind ranged from $26-50 per MWh, and utility-scale lithium-ion battery storage ranged from $132-245 per MWh. In comparison, natural gas combined cycle plants ranged from $44-68 per MWh and coal plants ranged from $65-159 per MWh. This data shows that renewable sources like solar and wind are now the cheapest forms of electricity generation, beating out fossil fuels. The continuous declines in solar and wind costs make them very attractive options for low cost and clean electricity production.

Evaluating Safety

When evaluating the safety of energy sources, two important factors to consider are mortality rates and environmental impact. Fossil fuels like coal and oil have high accident and air pollution death rates, resulting in over 4 million deaths annually. Coal power alone accounts for over 800,000 deaths per year from air pollution. Fossil fuels also produce large amounts of greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to climate change.

In contrast, modern renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and hydropower have extremely low mortality rates, resulting in only a few hundred deaths per year globally. The environmental impacts of renewable energy are also minimal in comparison to fossil fuels. While nuclear energy does have a strong safety record and low emissions, concerns remain over radiation exposure from accidents and nuclear waste storage. Severe nuclear accidents are rare but can be catastrophic, as evidenced by Chernobyl and Fukushima.

According to sources like Our World in Data and the Visual Capitalist, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources are substantially cleaner and safer than fossil fuels. While no energy source is completely without risk, solar and wind energy prove to be the safest options when considering their low mortality rates and minimal environmental impacts.

Solar Energy

Solar energy harnesses the sun’s energy using two main technologies – solar photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). PV cells convert sunlight directly into electricity using semiconducting materials like silicon. Arrays of PV panels are used to generate electricity for homes, businesses, and utility-scale projects. CSP systems use mirrors to concentrate sunlight and produce high temperatures to drive traditional steam turbines. Some key benefits of solar power include its renewable, emissions-free nature and falling costs due to technological advances. The levelized cost of energy from solar PV has fallen 89% since 2009 (source). While costs vary by region, solar PV electricity can compete with fossil fuels in many markets today and offers a sustainable long-term energy solution.

Wind Energy

Wind power is one of the most mature and cost-effective renewable energy sources available today. Both onshore and offshore wind turbines harness the power of wind to generate electricity. Onshore wind turbines are installed on land, while offshore turbines are installed in bodies of water like oceans, lakes, and rivers.

According to the European Wind Energy Association, onshore wind is one of the most cost-competitive sources of renewable energy, with costs steadily decreasing over the past decade. The levelized cost of energy for new onshore wind power plants is now competitive with new coal, gas and nuclear plants. In the past 30 years, the cost of onshore wind energy has fallen by around 90% (https://setis.ec.europa.eu/document/download/4f3e4bd1-9ae7-498c-919c-4806edcc598e_en).

Offshore wind turbines experience stronger and more consistent winds than onshore turbines, allowing them to generate more electricity. However, offshore wind farms have greater installation and maintenance costs due to their ocean location. Advancements in offshore wind technology are helping drive down costs.

The Verdict

Based on the research, wind and solar energy appear to be the most affordable and safe energy sources when compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power. Fossil fuels like coal and natural gas are relatively cheap but produce significant pollution and carbon emissions that contribute to climate change. Nuclear energy can provide clean, low-emission power but has extremely high upfront capital costs and the risk of catastrophic accidents. Renewable sources like solar and wind avoid many of the downsides of traditional power plants.

Utility-scale wind and solar farms are now cost competitive with coal and gas plants in many markets. The fuel for wind and solar (wind and sunlight) is free, so operational costs are lower once the initial investment is recouped. In the best locations, solar and wind can even produce electricity for under 5 cents per kWh. Nuclear plants are estimated to cost over 12 cents per kWh.

Renewables are also much safer. The IPCC estimates nuclear energy has resulted in just under 200 deaths since 1970, mainly due to accidents like Chernobyl and Fukushima. Fossil fuels are estimated to cause over 800,000 premature deaths per year due to air pollution. In contrast, wind and solar have negligible direct impacts on human health and the lowest death rates per kWh of any energy source.

Overall, an analysis of affordability and safety makes wind and solar the clear standouts. Looking forward, costs for renewables are projected to keep falling while innovation and efficiencies continue improving. With the right investments and policies, clean renewable energy can power the world’s future in a safe and sustainable way.


This article examined the most cost-effective and safe sources of energy. We looked at the benefits and drawbacks of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable sources like solar and wind power. While fossil fuels have historically been cheap, their negative impacts on the environment and climate make them unsustainable. Nuclear power is efficient and reliable but faces concerns around radioactive waste disposal and safety. Ultimately, advances in renewable technologies like solar and wind are making them increasingly affordable and accessible. Though renewables have higher upfront costs, long-term they are likely to be the most cost-effective and safe energy solutions. Moving forward, a mix of renewable sources can provide clean, affordable energy to meet society’s needs. The key will be continued innovation to improve efficiency and storage capabilities. With the right policies and investments, renewables like solar and wind can become dominant players in a safe, sustainable energy future.

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